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Acute inflammation
• Part of the body’s natural defense system
• Pro-inflammatories are released to aid infection or injury
Chronic inflammation
• Systemic
• A factor in all chronic, degenerative disease
• Damages healthy tissue
• blood vessel linings (as in atherosclerosis)
• pancreatic tissue (in diabetes)
• joint tissue (in arthritis)
• digestive tract mucosa (in lactose and gluten intolerance)
• Results in
• increased body temperature
• hormone disruption
• reduced conversion of T4 to T3
• elevated reverse T3 (RT3)
• iron sequestered into ferritin
Conditions causing and/or caused by inflammation
• Hypothyroidism
• Diabetes
• Insulin resistance
• Heart disease
• Digestive conditions
• autoimmune gastritis
• irritable bowel syndrome
• Periodontal disease
• Depression
• Sleep apnea
• Chronic fatigue syndrome
• Fibromyalgia
• Insomnia
• Injury
• Cancer
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Arthritis
• Autoimmune disease
• lupus
• Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
• multiple sclerosis
• rheumatoid arthritis
Sources of chronic inflammation
• Obesity
• High circulating insulin
• High circulating glucose
• Smoking
• Infection with pathogens
• viral
• bacteria
• fungal
• spirochetes such as Borrelia that causes Lyme
• Dysbiosis or "bad bacteria" intestinal overgrowth
• Chronic food allergies, most often to milk, wheat, corn or soy
• Toxins such as heavy metals, pesticides, PCBs
• Radiation exposure
• Emotional stress
• Some drugs
Contributing factors
• Low free T3
• Low vitamin B12
• Low vitamin B6
• Low vitamin D
Indicators of inflammation
• High ferritin
• Elevated homocysteine
• Elevated galectin-3
• High inflammatory cytokines
• C reactive protein (CRP)
• IL-1
• IL-6
• TNF-alpha
• IFN-gamma
• Non-protein amino acid synthesized from nutrients in the diet
• Elevated levels increase risk of heart disease, fractures in the elderly,
and Alzheimer’s disease
• Opimal level under 8
• Treat with large doses of methylation-enhancing supplements
C-reactive protein
• Produced by the liver
• Participates in the clearance of foreign and damaged cells
• Believed to play a role in defense against infections
• Normally only very small amounts in the blood
• Increases after acute occurrences such as injury, infection or
inflammation and then disappears when the cause is resolved
• Release of cytokines triggers production
• Rises rapidly and then declines (half-life 18 hours)
• Continually elevated in chronic inflammatory conditions
• Ongoing elevated levels increase risk for
• heart disease
• stroke
• high blood pressure
• insulin resistance
• diabetes
Anti-inflammatory eating
• Limit starch and simple sugars
• Favor omega-3 fats over omega-6 fats (corn, safflower, sunflower)
• Eat foods high in omega-3 fats
• salmon, sardines, mackeral, halibut, tuna, shrimp, scallops
• flax seeds, chia seeds, walnuts
• kale, collard greens, spinach, winter squash, romaine lettuce,
avocado, olive
• raspberries, strawberries
• Avoid trans fats
• Avoid glycotoxins (formed from the reaction of sugars and oxidized
fats with protein in foods cooked at very high temperatures)
• Emphasize organic, unprocessed food to reduce chemicals
• Eat meat raised without antibiotics or hormones
• Enjoy dark chocolate
Anti-inflammatory supplements
A number of supplements are known to improve inflammation.